Although our country ranks 4th after China, USA and France in world apple production with a production of approximately 2.5 million tons. Our apple exports are at very low levels, such as 25-30 thousand tons. In order to increase apple exports, the varieties demanded by the foreign market should be grown in accordance with the standards.
Climate and Soil Demand
Jersey Mac, Vista Bella, Summer Red, Red Star, Anna, Golden Dorset, Wiliams Pride and Gala Group summer houses and apartments with a winter cooling requirement below 7.2 ºC between 600 and 1200 hours in the 300-800 m altitude parts of the Mediterranean and Aegean regions. Autumn apple cultivars are recommended. It is recommended to grow winter varieties that can be stored for a long time, with a cooling requirement between 1500-2500 hours in the Passage and Inner Regions. Apples do not like active lime content over 12% and heavy textured soils.
On apple clone rootstocks, the product is started to be taken from the 2nd year, and at the 7th age, which is the full yield age, 8-10 tons of product can be obtained per decare. Fully dwarf M 9 and rootstocks such as Pajam 1, Pajam 2 and EMLA 9 developed from this rootstock are resistant to phytophthora and are partially susceptible to fire blight bacterial disease. With these rootstocks, gardens should be established with a wire support system up to 3-3.5 m high. Planting frequency in gardens established with full dwarf rootstocks; between the rows, 3.5-4 m, 1-1.5 m above the row should be. Spur type cultivars should not be grafted onto fully dwarf apple clone rootstocks. In orchards established on dwarf M9 purposes, between 166-250 decares, 65-120 apples per decare in varieties grafted on M26, M7 and MM 106 semi-dwarf clone rootstocks, and 50-85 apple saplings in strong growing MM 111 clone rootstocks can be planted. MM 111 rootstock is more drought resistant than other apple clone rootstocks.
Important Clone Rootstocks and Varieties
In recent years, an important transformation has started in apple growing in our country. is; The use of clone rootstocks such as M 9, M 26, M 7, MM 106, MM 111 is increasing rapidly. Among the early summer varieties; Vista Bella, Jersey Mac, Summer Red and Williams Star. Important autumn varieties, Ruby Gala, Royal Gala, Galaxy Gala, Mondial Gala, winter varieties; There are varieties such as Jonagold, Scarlet Spur, Red Chief, Breuburn, Fuji, Red Chief, Pink Lady, Grany Smith, and the cultivation of these varieties, where foreign demand is intense, is increasing rapidly. Especially in gardens established with varieties sensitive to sunburn such as Grany Smith, covering materials that prevent light transmission on trees at different rates are recommended.
Finishing Systems and Fruit Thinning
In apple orchards, training systems such as different peak branch, modified leader and fine spindle are applied. In order to obtain sufficient product, 10-15% pollinator variety should be available. In order to obtain a standard size product, it is absolutely necessary to dilute the apples. The main fruit in the middle of the fruits present in a flower beam should be left, and the other fruits should be plucked. In dilution with chemicals, it should be done approximately 20-25 days after full bloom.
Diseases and Pests
Apple powdery mildew, Apple black spot, Monilya and apple viruses important diseases, Apple webworm, Apple inner worm, Apple cotton lice are among the important pests.